Flora and Fauna in a New Climate

19 April 2014
Bushcraft is an art of interacting with the world around you, taking your place as part of the natural world. Many of the skills we seek to develop come from a desire to connect with this natural world, with varying degrees of separation from pure natural tools.

Physical Knowledge
A large part of the knowledge aquired in bushcraft is in the realm of physical skill. Be it tracking, fishing, trapping, carving or fire by friction these physical skills are something me can develop. As long as we hone these skills on a regular basis they are something we can always carry with us. It's also important to note that these physicals skills need to be committed to muscle memory, practised over and again until they become fully learnt. The simple theory isn't enough.

Nature Knowledge 
The other element of bushcraft is our nature knowledge, knowing the interactions, habitats, dangers and uses of our environment. This is the more intellectual of the two spheres but can be learnt effectively through many different systems. Thomas Elpel's "Botany in a Day" is an effective primer on how to organise and acquire this knowledge.

Moving Clime 
It's this element of our knowledge which is so much harder to carry with us. Having spent most of the last decade in Poland I have developed my knowledge of the flora and fora there. I have attuned my survival priorities to the Polish climate and landscapes and put into practice some skills such as working with pine roots and birch bark and tracking in the snow.

The New Location 
This year though, I have relocated to the Ionian coast, way down in the heel of Italy. The trees are somewhat tropical in appearance; palms, lemons, oranges, figs and olives. The ground and soil itself is of a different type and so the rocks and resources available are different too. There are familiar species about, Yarrow and some Pines but with cactus and agave pouring out of waste ground too. I don't know which species are native and which introduced. It's something of a culture shock for the bushcrafter, seeing so much carefully aquired knowledge rendered useless by a change of climate.

Animal Life
The animal life is different too. I encounter handfuls of lizards every day, whereas I've seen a lizard once in the UK and never in Poland. Bird life is different too, being at a different point in the migrations and right on the coast. Living coastally is one great advantage though, as our mesolithic ancestors stuck largely to coasts and river banks for good reasons, they really are places of abundance.

Starting Over 
It's humbling to have to go back to the beginning again, to build up my knowledge of the world around me from a new start. To be doing so in a place which is that much more different to where I grew up and in another foreign language simply adds to the challenge. I'll be sure to keep you up to date with how I become familiar with natural Italy.

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How Sharp Does an Axe Need to Be?

22 March 2014
Is this an easy question for someone out there? I've played and played with my Delaronde forge bag axe and dutifully put marker on the edge and sharpened it with a mat and wet and dry paper. The edge is sharp enough to split wood and will chop but when you look at the cuts it makes they are not smooth but quite ragged.

I've used everything I can think of on the axe from paper to stones and strops - it just doesn't ever get really sharp. I'm pretty disappointed with a beautiful looking tool which just can't seem to do its job. Every other tool I have is shaving sharp yet this axe seems to resist all my efforts.

On the other hand I have some cheap Indian tomahawk heads - you can put a good edge on them with a file. They don't hold the edge too long but I'd prefer a softer edge that comes up sharp easily than a harder one that never wants to. There's also the positive aspect that the edge will roll rather than chip if you happen to come across something harder than expected when chopping.

The other reasons I lean more towards the cheap tomahawk heads are the other utility aspects. The handle is relatively easy to switch in and out as it's a friction fit. You can fit a longer handle if you're going to be chopping more, or perhaps go as far as the Polish highlanders' axe, the ciupaga, and add a 4 foot handle and use it as a walking stick. The head can also be taken off and the radius of the cutting edge allows it to be used as a a knife or ulu. It's also good for a small survival kit, a cooking pot, 'hawk head, plastic sheet and fire starter make a quick basic survival or minimalist camping kit. The whold weight comes to less than a kilo too.

I've come across this video from the A-Z of bushcraft on axes.

Here's Dave Canterbury, formerly of Dual Survival extolling the virtues of the tomahawk

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Pitt-Rivers and History of Science Museums Oxford - A Bushcrafter's Take

21 June 2013
On a recent visit to Oxford I took in some of the collections of the excellent and free museums there. The Pitt-Rivers ethnographic museum has long been recommended as an interesting visit but the History of Science museum also has its attractions.

The City of Dreaming Spires is certainly not without its attractions for those interested in survival and primitive living skills.

The Pitt-Rivers

 This is certainly an old school museum with a mix of modern information cards and hand written ones that could be any number of years old. The cases are on the dark side and not everything is always easy to see. The information desk can supply torches and magnifying glasses but I didn't find it that bad.

The highlights for many bushcrafters would be in the case of different fire-making equipment categorised with great detail applied to the technique used. That's not the only case worth seeing though as they had some Sami and Inuit needle cases as well as a seal gut parka and many other items for food processing and hunting. In general, the artefacts showed a tremendous attention to detail and a master level of workmanship

It's always hard with museum collections to tell if this represents the true picture -  they display the best items, and the less attractive and more utilitarian are also perhaps more likely to be discarded or worn out. The cases do contain more than enough inspiration for any number of projects though.
An added boon is that the museum is housed alongside the museum of natural history. Although much of this was being refurbished, there were still some interesting cases on show and it reinforces the idea that a bushcrafter is in many ways a true natural scientist.

History of Science
A smaller museum and much less heralded the History of Science Museum's collection is focussed on scientific instruments. In the first room there were a huge number of fine navigational tools and sundials. For anyone who has an interest in solar or celestial navigation it is a real eye opener. I have a long standing interest in quadrants but I'd no idea that they were quite so small.

I thoroughly recommend both of these museums and I often find inspiration in ancient history, prehistory and ethnography displays in various places.
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"Bugging In" and "Bugging Out" by David Crossley, Review and Author Interview

15 May 2013
Bushcraft and survival are, to some, synonyms. But what about long term survival? Or how to protect your own life in the event of fire or flood? Where does self sufficiency come in?

They're all vital questions, and with 8 episodes of serious flooding in the UK since 2000, as well as various more localised problems, it's no longer possible to hope that someone else will take responsibility for you.
As far as answers go, it's worth getting some expert advice and doing some personal research. Two very good stepping stones to being more prepared for problems are the books "Bugging In" and "Bugging Out" recently released in paperback and digital format by David Crossley. They are available both as digital editions and through Amazon, and paperback copies are available through Lulu; Bugging Out and Bugging In

Bugging In covers what to do if you are cut off by snow, flood or any other calamity whilst Bugging Out looks at what to do in the event you need to evacuate your home.

We're very fortunate that David has agreed to answer a few questions about his books and about preparing in general for Woodcrafter's log.

David, there's a lot of literature out there about preparedness, why did you decide to write your books?
There were 2 main reasons. Firstly, almost all of the existing books are written by, and for, Americans and I couldn't find any modern texts written by a British author relevant to Europe in general and the UK in particular. The information in some of the American books is good but very much centred on the culture, laws and geography of North America and really doesn't apply to our situation.

Secondly, although some of the existing books are good many, especially those intended for e-publishing, contain very little detail. I believe that people shouldn't be told what to do; they should be given information on the facts and the various options they have, with the advantages and disadvantages, so that they can choose a path that is most suitable for them, their family and their individual circumstances. All the information in my print books is also there in the e-reader version.

Thinking about Bugging In, what sort of scenarios does the book cover? What other sections does it have?
In most scenarios the preparations that you make and the actions you have to take are very similar. Most of the information about power, shelter, warmth, food, water, cooking and preserving, health and medical care, security, communications, finances, education and maintaining morale is therefore applicable to a wide range of potential events. However, there are some situations, such as pandemics, industrial accidents or terrorist attacks involving biological, chemical, nuclear or radiological releases that require some extra equipment and knowledge, so I have provided additional guidance on dealing with those.

When do you think Bugging Out would be appropriate? Does it have a degree of overlap with more bushcraft oriented survival skills?
Bugging Out becomes appropriate whenever life cannot be maintained at your Bug In location, whether that is your usual home or somewhere you have moved to because of the emergency. That might be because of imminent structural collapse, flooding, fire, radiation or attack by an overwhelming force.

Although heading for the woods might be one option for people who have the kit and skills, there are usually many other choices. You might, for example, move to be with family or friends, to a hotel, or to a boat or caravan if you have one. For most people, hiking into the wilderness and depending on bushcraft skills would be the most difficult and therefore least desirable option. In Bugging Out I also cover the extra information people might need in a disaster because not all of the other people evacuating will be fellow bushcrafters just wanting to share your fire and a friendly chat. Think of bushcrafting in the American west or African bush before they were settled but after we had really pissed off the natives and you will be closer to what you might expect.

Do you see these preparations as a form of insurance?
That's exactly what they are! Except that with this insurance there is nobody trying their hardest to find an excuse not to pay out; if you do this properly your preps will always there and there will be no wait when you need them.

Have you ever been in any of the situations you've mentioned?
Unfortunately yes! As a soldier for 22 years, serving in some remote places, we were sometimes forced to Bug In by being under siege and at other times had to Bug Out with only what was instantly to hand. Elsewhere, it wasn't me that was in the firing line but others I was there to support or rescue, after natural disasters or conflicts in Central America, Indonesia and Africa. For many of them, the difference between being mentally and physically prepared or not decided whether they lived or died.

Back in the UK I once had to evacuate from a hotel fire in the middle of the night, while at home I've been snowed in with no power and local roads blocked, and had times of injury and unemployment. Our lives were not at risk, as mine and those of others were overseas, but our preps certainly made a huge difference to maintaining our quality of life.

What would you say to people who think it could never happen to them, (or those who think survival is stock piling ammunition and learning ways to kill a ninja with a pair of socks)?
Very little in life is guaranteed, that is why we have house insurance, car insurance, life insurance and, when possible, savings. Unfortunately things we never believed would happen do; ask the people of Cyprus or Iceland who lost their life savings, ask the people of York flooded out twice in two years from areas that had never known it in living memory, or the residents on Arran who were snowed in and without power for longer than they have ever before experienced.

Forget about meteors crashing to Earth or mega-eruptions in Yellowstone Park, the realities are: terrorism; financial incompetence and corruption in government; increasingly sophisticated but fragile technological complexes controlling interdependent ‘just in time’ financial, industrial, and supply systems; changing weather patterns; these and so many other things are increasing our exposure while most people who have never experienced disaster at first hand seem to believe that either they are invulnerable or if anything does happen Bruce Willis will appear to rescue them, because they are entitled to that. Well, with all due respect to Bruce, it isn't going to happen. Governments are cutting back, implementing austerity measures, which means the resources they will have to deploy in a major emergency are decreasing by the day. If you want to survive, you better start taking responsibility for you and your own because that is the only help on which you can rely. Preparations made now will be a major help. Reading Bugging In and Bugging Out is not a bad place to start

My Opinion
Personally, I strongly recommend thinking about making some preparations for your home and family. It's far from the fringe activity many presume and government agencies in many countries are now encouraging people to make some basic preparations. These books will show you how to go about that so in the event of any problem you can take better care of yourself.

Thanks to David for answering my questions and writing the books in question.
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SAK Electrician Plus - Long Term Review

12 May 2013
Having a little bushcraft in your daily life is certainly a good thing, and one of the ways I do that and add to my general every day carry kit for a just-in-case event. Poland has more relaxed rules on carrying pocket knives than the UK and you can regularly see scouts ready to go on camping trips using the metro with a Mora-type knife on their belt. I do travel about the UK too so having a non-locking folder with a sub 3 inch blade makes that a lot easier. Way back in 2006 I picked up a Victorinox Electrician Plus and seven years later it still rides in my pocket every day.

Nessmuk's Pocket Knife
The ever quotable Nessmuk saw his pocket knife as an indispensable part of his tool trio. The pocket knife was for carving and whittling, it's multiple blades being a boon there whilst the easier to clean and larger sheath knife was more for food and hunting purposes. I wanted a knife that ticked several boxes, that could be a stand alone tool as well as part of a trio for longer and more equipped trips.

Whittling Blades
Reading How to Whittle Twigs and Branches you quickly learn the value of having a short fine blade and a larger one on a knife to make carving fiddly items easier. Having a backup blade is always a good idea so i was on the lookout for a knife with at least two blades. The knife I chose came with a chisel ground sheepsfoot pattern blade. After re profiling this to be convex on both sides it's been an excellent carving and detail blade and the point of the blade being in a straight line allows some tight turns and detail cuts. The bigger blade isn't sharpened quite so often and is used for more of the general work - stop cuts, opening packets and even making sandwiches on holiday. It's rare a day goes by without getting it out to fix a little problem somewhere.

Other Tools
There is also the regular urban use element of a knife. Choosing a Swiss Army Knife (SAK) means it's relatively friendly and doesn't look out of place or threatening in any situation. It also allows you to add a few tools. The screwdriver and cap lifter get used fairly regularly and I must admit to using the screwdriver as a pry on occasion. The wood saw makes some bigger bits of wood within reach of a small knife, allows easy carving of notches and generally makes the knife more capable than it's size would have you think.

The final tool and one of the main selling points of this particular knife is the excellent awl. It not only works for boring holes but it's position on the end of the knife, rather than in the centre as on many of plastic handled models, allows it to b used for scribing lines. The L-shaped profile means it makes a tolerable tool for knot work and the slightly sharpened edge is very good at getting sparks from a firesteel.
In over 6 years of use it's never missed a beat and I expect the knife to keep going for many years to come. It's been one of the most heavily used items of bushcraft kit I've ever bought and the best value.
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